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Standards related to digital writing

Page history last edited by Richard Beach 6 years ago

Standards related to understanding and creating digital texts


Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. Association of College & Research Libraries


Common Core State Standards  

College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading p. 31

Key Ideas and Details

  1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
  2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
  3. Analyze in detail where, when, why, and how events, ideas, and characters develop and interact over the course of a text.


Craft and Structure

  1. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and explain how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
  2. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section or chapter) relate to each other and the whole.
  3. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.


Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  1. Synthesize and apply information presented in diverse ways (e.g., through words, images, graphs, and video) in print and digital sources in order to answer questions, solve problems, or compare modes of presentation.
  2. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning and rhetoric within a text, including assessing whether the evidence provided is relevant and sufficient to support the text’s claims.
  3. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.


Range and Level of Text Complexity

  1. Read complex texts independently, proficiently, and fluently, sustaining concentration, monitoring comprehension, and, when useful, rereading.



College and Career Readiness Standards for Writing  p. 37

Text Types and Purposes

  1. Write arguments to support a substantive claim with clear reasons and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  2. Write informative/explanatory texts to convey complex information clearly and accurately through purposeful selection and organization of content.
  3. Write narratives to convey real or imagined experiences, individuals, or events and how they develop over time.


Production and Distribution of Writing

  1. Produce writing in which the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  2. Strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.2
  3. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and interact with others about writing.


Research to Build Knowledge

  1. Perform short, focused research projects as well as more sustained research in response to a focused research question, demonstrating understanding of the material under investigation.
  2. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate and cite the information while avoiding plagiarism.
  3. Write in response to literary or informational sources, drawing evidence from the text to support analysis and reflection as well as to describe what they have learned.


Range of Writing

  1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.


College and Career Readiness Standards for Speaking and Listening  p. 44

Comprehension and Collaboration

  1. Participate effectively in a range of interactions (one-on-one and in groups), exchanging information to advance a discussion and to build on the input of others.
  2. Integrate and evaluate information from multiple oral, visual, or multimodal sources in order to answer questions, solve problems, or build knowledge.
  3. Evaluate the speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.


Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

  1. Present information, evidence, and reasoning in a clear and well-structured way appropriate to purpose and audience.
  2. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding.
  3. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.


College and Career Readiness Standards for Language  p. 47

Conventions in Writing and Speaking

  1. Demonstrate a command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage.
  2. Demonstrate a command of the conventions of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
  3. Make effective choices about language, punctuation, and sentence structure for meaning and style.


Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases encountered through conversations, reading, and media use.
  2. Understand the nuances of and relationships among words.
  3. Use grade-appropriate general academic vocabulary and domain-specific words and phrases purposefully acquired as well as gained through conversation and reading and responding to texts.


National Council of Teachers of English/International Reading Association: Standards for the English Language Arts

  1. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.
  2. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, and vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
  3. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
  4. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, and people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.
  5. Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, and video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.
  6. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities.
  7. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).



IRA/NCTE: Standards for Assessment of Reading and Writing (includes material on digital literacies)


Partnership for 21st Century Skills: Information and Media Literacy Standards relevant to digital writing

  • Accessing information efficiently and effectively, evaluating information critically and competently and using information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand.
  • Using digital technology, communication tools and/or networks appropriately to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information in order to function in a knowledge economy.
  • Using technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate and communicate information, and the possession of a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information.


Partnership for 21st Century Skills: Milestones for Learning and Teaching: Chart of different phases of school district implementation of 21st Century Skills


National Technology Standards


International Society for Technology in Education: National Education Technology Standards for Students relevant to digital writing

  • Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.
  • Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology-enhanced models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.
  • Students use telecommunications to collaborate, publish, and interact with peers, experts, and other audiences.
  • Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences.
  • Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.
  • Students use technology tools to process data and report results.
  • Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.


Henry Jenkins, Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century, The MacArthur Foundation Digital Media and Learning Initiative

Schools and afterschool programs must devote more attention to fostering what we call the new media literacies: a set of cultural competencies and social skills that young people need in the new media landscape. Participatory culture shifts the focus of literacy from one of individual expression to community involvement. The new literacies almost all involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking. These skills build on the foundation of traditional literacy, research skills, technical skills, and critical analysis skills taught in the classroom.


The new skills include:

    • Play — the capacity to experiment with one’s surroundings as a form of problem-solving.
    • Performance — the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery.
    • Simulation — the ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world processes.
    • Appropriation — the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content.
    • Multitasking — the ability to scan one’s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details.
    • Distributed Cognition — the ability to interact meaningfully with tools that expand mental capacities.
    • Collective Intelligence — the ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal.
    • Judgment — the ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources.
    • Transmedia Navigation — the ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities.
    • Networking — the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information.
    • Negotiation — the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms.  (Jenkins, 2007, p. 3).


Additional Resources


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